Scots-Irish Presbyterian minister James Alexander Hamilton Irwin of Killead Church, County Antrim, arrived in America in March 1920 to help promote Irish independence. His particular mission: counter the prevailing notion that Irish nationalism was strictly a Catholic desire. The Protestant preacher toured with republican leader Éamon de Valera, who had reached U.S. shores in June 1919.
In one of his earliest U.S. newspaper interviews1, Rev. Irwin, then 44, said:
I have come to the United States mainly because I feel that the Irish issue is likely to be misconstrued to the American public. I knew that a deputation was sent to represent the extreme Unionist, and I knew that the southern aspect was capably presented by Mr. de Valera and his friends, but I felt that there was an entirely different aspect and point of view that neither of these parties could or would put before the American people.
It is absolutely and entirely false to say the issue [of Irish independence] is a religious one. … The question is purely political and economic. [Unionist leader] Sir Edward Carson … has allowed himself and his followers to use [sectarianism] as the last refuge of a defeated politician. He knows that it is the only weapon he can use with effect on the American people, who are lovers of freedom and justice, and who, he knows, would resent any form of Catholic aggression.
The Irish Press of Philadelphia, a pro-nationalist weekly with ties to the provisional republican government in Dublin, reported on Rev. Irwin’s April 5, 1920, address to the Protestant Friends of Ireland2 in New York. “A sea of Irish faces, 5,000 strong, all eagerly wait[ed] to hear the speaker of the evening,” began the story3 by Agnes Newman, sister of 1916 Easter Rising martyr Sir Roger Casement.
Dr. Irwin emphasized the fact that if Britain would withdraw her present army of occupation from Ireland not one hair upon the head of a man, woman or child would be injured in any part of Ireland. He strongly denounced the oppression and cruelty of the present ‘Reign of Terror’ and said he had traveled these thousands of miles not in the cause of humanity alone, but in the cause of Christianity.
Within weeks of his U.S. arrival, Unionist forces began a smear campaign against Rev. Irwin. “His views [are] absolutely opposed to the whole mass of Irish Presbyterian opinion … his statement … a mass of falsehoods and misrepresentations. He has no credentials to speak for either Presbyterians or Protestants,” stated a widely-circulated April 10, 1920, letter from Belfast, attributed only to “responsible representatives.”4
Nevertheless, Rev. Irwin became a regular platform guest with de Valera as the Irish bond drive toured through the Southern states of America, including a controversial stop in Birmingham, Alabama. (I’ll explore that in a future post.) Rev. Irwin also visited several Canadian cities.
Upon his January 1921 return to Ulster, the preacher was arrested by British authorities on weapons charges. As colorfully described by the Fermanagh Herald, “a farmer’s gun for which there was no ammunition, and a revolver which would not revolve, with ammunition that would not fit it.”5
News coverage on both sides of the Atlantic suggested Rev. Irwin was the first Presbyterian minister arrested by the British state since the rebellion of 1798. These contemporary sources reported he was held at the Crumlin Road Gaol in Belfast, and/or the Ballykinlar internment camp in County Down; either for a few days or several weeks of a two-year sentence.
That summer, a special commission impaneled at Killead church considered complaints about the preacher’s activities in America. The majority opinion was that “if outsiders had left the congregation alone there would have been no occasion for the commission. It was due, they said, to outside influence for political purposes.”6 Rev. Irwin remained at Killead for another five years, moved to Scotland until 1935, then settled in Dublin.7
In 1937, de Valera consulted with Rev. Irwin about the composition of the new Constitution of Ireland. The preacher later joined de Valera’s Fianna Fáil political party, where he served on the national executive from 1945 until his death in 1954.8
- “Praises Just Spirit of Irish Catholics: Dr. Irwin, From Antrim, Presents Case of the Protestants Who Favor Self-Determination”, The Boston Globe, March 12, 1920.
- Formed in December 1919 to counter a group of Ulster Unionists in America to oppose Irish separatism. See “Protestant Friends of Ireland Challenge the Visiting Delegation from Ulster” in the Kentucky Irish American, Dec. 20, 1919.
- “Tells of Great N.Y. Protestant Meeting“, The Irish Times, April 10, 1920.
- “The ‘Irwin’ Mission“, D.D. Irvine in English Speaking World magazine, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 1920, p. 24; Society for American and British Friendship advertisement in The Birmingham (Alabama) News, April 21, 1920; “Rev. Dr. Irwin” , Letter to the Editor from J.R. Bridges, editor of the Presbyterian Standard, in the Charlotte (North Carolina) Observer, April 30, 1920. … For Rev. Irwin’s response to Irvine, see “Presbyterian Minister on the Exposure of his Libeller” in Anglo-Celt, Aug. 6, 1921.
- “On His American Tour: Charges Against Dr. Irwin”, Fermanagh Herald, July 30, 1921.
- Conor Morrissey, Protestant Nationalists in Ireland, 1900-1923. Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 178.
- Eamon Phoenix, “The Minister and Mr. de Valera: the Rev. Dr. J.A.H. Irwin of Killead, 1876-1954”, 2008 Robert Allen Memorial Lecture, and “Northern Presbyterian Minister“, in The Irish News, Nov. 8, 2014.