IUC, Revisited: People, Places & Events

This page includes people, places and events mentioned by American journalist William Henry Hurlbert in his 1888 political travel diary, Ireland Under Coercion: The Diary of an American. I am updating this list as I blog through the book, with links back to the relevant post. Entries are in alphabetical order by last name for people, first letter for places, entities, etc. Many of the people are hyperlinked to Wikipedia pages for source consistency. As with the main series of blog posts, reader questions or suggestions are welcome. MH

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 John George Adair: Irish landlord and businessman responsible for the 1861 evictions of more than 200 families in County Donegal. See post 7.

Arthur James Balfour: Chief Secretary for Ireland from March 1887 to November 1891. He was appointed by his uncle Robert Cecil/Lord Salisbury, a three-time U.K. prime minister whom he succeeded in 1902. See post 2post 3; post 15.

Wilfrid Scawen BluntEnglish poet and writer supported by Michael Davitt in February 1888 by-election. Blunt later wrote about the Land War in Ireland, including Davitt. See post 14; post 15.

Boycotting: A tactic of social and economic ostracism made famous during the Land War. See post 18; post 28.

Father Thomas Nicholas Burke: Irish Dominican priest. In 1872, he engaged with English historian James Anthony Froude in several New York City debates about Irish and Catholic issues.

Grover Cleveland: U.S. president from 1885, but lost the 1888 election to Benjamin Harrison. Four years later, he beat Harrison in the rematch.

Cork: Hurlbert visited Cork city, and nearby Blarney Castle and Youghal. See post 23.

Daniel W. Crofts: Author of A secession crisis enigma: William Henry Hurlbert and “The diary of a public man”. The purported diary, published in 1879, was “a fictional construct … rooted in reality,” according to Crofts, who says Hurlbert was its anonymous author. Ireland Under Coercion had “important implications” for his 2010 analysis, which is also the best biography of Hurlbert. See post 20.

Philippe Daryl: Pseudonym of French journalist Paschal Grousset, who published an 1888 book about his travels in Ireland the previous two summers. See post 13; post 14.

Michael Davitt: Irish land reform agitator, labor leader and politician. His right arm was amputated after an 1857 cotton mill accident. See post 2; post 3; post 15; post 16; post 28.

John Devoy: Irish revolutionary and journalist exiled to America in 1871.

Donegal: County in northwest Ireland, visited by Hurlbert in February 1888. See post 8, post 9.

Henry Edward Doyle: Director the National Gallery of Ireland and brother of  Richard Doyle. See post 13.

Dublin slums: Created after the Irish parliament was dissolved by the 1800 Act of Union. Hurlbert visited. See post 5.

Patrick Ford: Irish-American journalist who advocated for Irish land reform from his New York-based Irish World newspaper.

Henry George: America economist and journalist. His 1879 book Progress and Poverty influence Michael Davitt. See post 4, post 28, post 34.

Edward Gibson/Lord Ashbourne: The Dublin-born lawyer drafted the 1885 Irish land purchase law known as the Ashbourne Act, after his County Meath peerage title. See post 5.

Glenbehy (Glenbeigh): County Kerry community where Hurlbert witnessed an tenant eviction in February 1888. See post 21.

Glenveagh/Derryveagh: Area of central Donegal where more than 200 families were evicted in 1861. Now a national park. See post 7.

Cunninghame Graham: Journalist, socialist and Scottish nationalist M.P. who spent six weeks in prison for participating in the November 1887  Trafalgar Square Riots. Referenced by Michael Davitt. See post 15.

Timothy Healy: Irish nationalist who joined Charles Stewart Parnell in 1880 tour of U.S. and Canada. See post 34.

Lord George Hill: Mid-19th century landlord in County Donegal. See post 8.  

William Henry Hurlbert: American journalist and author of the 1888 political travel diary, Ireland Under Coercion: The Diary of an AmericanSee post 20.

Douglas Hyde: Irish nationalist linguist, scholar and poet who contributed a poem about the Gaelic Athletic Association, founded in 1884, to Poems and Ballads of Young Ireland. See post 32.

Irish Woolen Co.: One of Micheal Davitt’s business ventures to cultivate native industries. Discussed in interview with Hurlbert. See post 16.

Irish press: Hurlbert was a veteran New York City journalist. What did he think of the press in Ireland? See post 22; post 27.

Arthur MacMurrough Kavanagh: Irish aristocrat was born with no arms or legs, thus no hands and no feet, yet he became a Member of Parliament and excelled at range of activities. See post 29.

Kilkenny: Medieval town in southeast Ireland, featuring Kilkenny Castle and Kilkenny College. See post 12.

Killone Abbey: County Clare religious order ruin converted into loclal cemetery visited by Hurlbert. Also nearby St. John’s Well. See post 19.

Kingstown: Port town about nine miles south of Dublin. Known as Dún Laoghaire since 1920. See post 2. 

James Finton Lalor: Irish journalist and revolutionary who died nearly 40 years before Hurlbert’s trip. His writing about land reform in the periodical The Irish Felon influenced Michael Davitt and others.

Land War travel books: In addition to Hurlbert, at least eight other visitors to Ireland wrote books (now digitized) about the state of the country during the 1880s. See post 14; post 27.

Plan of Campaign: Agrarian activist strategy begun in late 1886 by Irish nationalists and their supporters in America. See post 8, post 24post 28.

Pope Leo XIII: In 1888, the pontiff issued several orders condemning agrarian violence in Ireland. See post 28.

Lixnaw: Town in County Kerry where boycotted farmer James Fitzmaurice was murdered the morning of Hurlbert’s first full day in Ireland. See post 10.

Father James McFaddenCatholic priest and agrarian advocate in Gweedore, County Donegal. See post 8.

Rev. Dr. Edward McGlynn: New York-born priest who supported the socialist land view of Henry George and Michael Davitt. See post 28.

Milltown Malbay: Village in County Clare where Hurlbert wrote about boycotting, angering Father Patrick White (below). See post 11

Moonlighters: Typically nocturnal raiders on farmers who threatened the Land League, either by paying their rent or leasing the land of an evicted tenant. The were the 1880s iteration of a long line of violent agrarian secret societies. See post 30.

National Gallery of Ireland: See post 13.

Charles Stuart Parnell: Irish Parliamentary Party leader who partnered with Michael Davitt in the 1880s to bring Home Rule to Ireland. See post 4, post 34. Older brother of Anna Parnell. See post 13.

Ponsonby Estate: The Charles Talbot Ponsonby property, about 30 miles east Cork city, in November 1886 became the first property targeted for the Plan of Campaign. Hurlbert visited in February 1888. See post 24.

Post Office Savings Banks: Hurlbert cited increased deposits during the 1880s as evidence that Ireland’s rural residents were not as poor as they claimed, and therefore could pay their rents. See post 31.

Rathkeale: Town in County Limerick, about 20 miles southwest of Limerick city. Site of 29 January 1888 nationalist rally featuring speech by Michael Davitt. See post 2; post 16.

Authur Warren Samuels: Irish Unionist M.P. who wrote in his 1912 book on Home Rule finance. See post 32.

Colonel Edward James Saunderson: North Armagh M.P. who spoke against Home Rule. See post 4.

Sion Mills: Site of linen factory near Strabane, County Tyrone, now part of Northern Ireland. See post 6.

Trains: Hurlbert traveled hundreds of miles by railways during his six-month reporting trip in Ireland. See post 25.

William Butler Yeats: Irish poet who was influenced in his early years by Irish separatist John O’Leary. Yeats contributed several poems to Poems and Ballads of Young Ireland, published during Hurlbert’s 1888 visit. See post 32.

Father Patrick White: Parish priest in Miltown Malbay, County Clare, who wrote a pamphlet rebuttal to Hurlbert’s book: Hurlbert unmasked : an exposure of the thumping English lies of William Henry Hurlbert in his ‘Ireland Under Coercion.’ See post 11.